Here's drawing a simple graph:

from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)  # a list of 10 integers, 0-9
y = range(10)
pyplot.plot(x, y)
pyplot.show()

And now for something a little more interesting:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)
y = random.sample(range(10), 10)
pyplot.plot(x, y)
pyplot.show()

We can have more than one graph on a single figure:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)
y1 = random.sample(range(10), 10)
y2 = random.sample(range(10), 10)
pyplot.plot(x, y1, x, y2)
pyplot.show()

What if the two graphs have much differing ranges:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)
y1 = random.sample(range(10), 10)
y2 = random.sample(range(100, 110), 10)
pyplot.plot(x, y1, x, y2)
pyplot.show()

Depending on need, that might not be ideal. So let's create two separate y-axes:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)
y1 = random.sample(range(10), 10)
y2 = random.sample(range(100, 110), 10)
pyplot.plot(x, y1)
pyplot.twinx()
pyplot.plot(x, y2)
pyplot.show()

Yeah, not exactly ideal. We lost the automatic coloring, and we don't even know which graph is which. Let's do better:

import random
from matplotlib import pyplot
x = range(10)
y1 = random.sample(range(10), 10)
y2 = random.sample(range(100, 110), 10)
pyplot.plot(x, y1, "red")
pyplot.ylabel("y1", color="red")
pyplot.twinx()
pyplot.plot(x, y2, "blue")
pyplot.ylabel("y2", color="blue")
pyplot.show()

This was done with the help of this example. There's a heck of a lot more.

further reading